Archive for the ‘Ethics’ Category

Repost of book review by Sue Smith (BMJ Medical Humanities 25/06/2019)

Enchanting“Enchanting Robots: Intimacy, Magic, and Technology is part of the book series, Social and Cultural Studies of Robots and AI, edited by Kathleen Richardson, Cathrine Hasse and Teresa Heffernan, and is written by Polish academic, Maciej Musiał. In Enchanting Robots Musiał discusses ‘magic’ and ‘magical thinking’ in order to critically assess humanity’s current and projected future relationship with newly emerging robot technology.  In brief, ‘magical thinking’ is the ability of humans to imaginatively confer human qualities onto ‘others,’ both animate and inanimate, creating meaningful and intimate connections with the non-human world.  It is through the theoretical lens of ‘magical thinking,’ which Musiał describes as an ongoing historical human process of enchantment, disenchantment and re-enchantment in pre-modern, modern and postmodern societies, that Enchanting Robots explores and examines humanity’s desire to re-enact personal moments of  ‘magic’ with the non-human ‘other’.  According to Musiał, understanding ‘magical thinking’ is of value because it helps explain how humans across differing cultures and time periods productively seek and create authentic moments of novelty and self worth that is of psychological benefit to both the individual and the wider community.  In particular, in the current climate of robot technology, which is creating a generation of love robots, sex robots and care robots in order to facilitate and promote new human relations with technology, Musiał argues that ‘magical thinking’ in today’s western world demands careful consideration for establishing important ethical foundations for the use and acceptance of non-human partners and carers in medicine and social care and across society in general.”

“Sequentially, Enchanting Robots consists of an ‘Introduction’ and four chapters starting with chapter 2, ‘Robots Enchanting Humans’; chapter 3, ‘Humans Enchanting Robots’; chapter 4, ‘Disenchanting and Re-Enchanting in Modernity’; and finally chapter 5, ‘In Lieu of a Conclusion: Where Will We Go from Here?’…”  Click here to continue reading.

Full book review posted at BMJ Medical Humanities Blog June 25, 2019

Un policy brief 1Killer robots. Slaughterbots. Lethal autonomous weapons systems (LAWS).  How are they changing international norms of warfare, peace and security? What does it mean for us? How concerned should we be?

These questions are the subject of a debate between Dr. Noel Sharkey, professor of A.I. and robotics (Sheffield), renowned BBC commentator on robotics and A.I., and Chair of the International Committee for Robot Arms Control, and Dr. Duncan MacIntosh,  professor of philosophy at Dalhousie University.

When: 7:00 pm, Wednesday, March 21st, 2018

Where: The Scotia Bank Auditorium (Sobey Business School building, Saint Mary’s University).

This public event is part of the “Automatons! From Ovid to AI” King’s College lecture series. It is co-sponsored by Saint Mary’s University and the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Public Affair.

POSTER War in the Age of Intell Machines A Deabte (Feb 28)

 

 

 

Don’t miss this debate!

Dr. Noel Sharkey, emeritus professor of artificial intelligence and robotics at the University of Sheffield, renowned BBC commentator on robotics and A.I., and the Chair of the “International Committee for Robot Arms Control”, will debate Dalhousie’s Duncan MacIntosh on the nature, ethics and future of “Autonomous Weapons and War in the Age of Intelligent Machines”.

The public event is co-sponsored by Saint Mary’s University and the Canadian Centre for Ethics in Public Affairs and will be taking place in  7:00pm, Wednesday, March 21st.

Public lecture on Artificial Intelligence

Posted: February 12, 2018 by keasp1 in AI, Ethics, Events, Science

On Wednesday February 14th, Stan Matwin (Dalhousie University) will give a public lecture on the technical, ethical and philosophical issues associated with artificial intelligence (AI). His talk will be followed by a response from Teresa Heffernan (Saint Mary’s University).

Part of the “Automatons: From Ovid to AI” lecture series, this public event is scheduled for 7:00 pm, February 14th, at Alumni Hall, King’s College, Halifax.

Matwin 5

heffernan-poster-3-1-e1516029997438.jpgNews headlines, government reports, scientific journals, and museums often use fiction to frame discussions of the robotics and artificial intelligence industry, implying a direct trajectory between the fiction and the science. Yet when it comes to real-world policies, the literary imagination is marginalized in discussions of a technological future with the oft-voiced argument that we need to keep the “fiction” out of science. There are all sorts of ways in which fiction and art more generally are mobilized in the service of the robotics/AI industry in order to prove the “creativity” and autonomy of artificial intelligence; what gets shut down, however, is the critical potential of art. Resisting the tendency to read science as fiction coming true, Teresa Heffernan will consider the very different ways science and fiction imagine robots, artificial intelligence, and technological futures.

When/Where: 7:00 PM, January 17 at Alumni Hall, University of King’s College, Halifax.

Information: www.ukings.ca/automatons

 

AutomatonsSeriesPoster-668x1024Starting January 10th, 2018, the University of King’s College, Halifax, is hosting an exciting public lecture series, Automatons! From Ovid to AI, on the culture, science and politics of robots and AI. The series begins with a screening of Fritz Lang’s 1927 classic film, Metropolis, with live musical accompaniment by the Upstream Music Association. Talks will be given by international scholars and authors such as Stephanie Dick (Of Models and Machines), Despina Kakoudaki (Anatomy of a Robot: Literature, Cinema and the Cultural Work of Artificial People), and Courtney Ann Roby (The Written Machine between Alexandria and Rome). Renowned physicist and commentator Noel Sharkey is scheduled to debate the issue of “fully autonomous weapons systems” with Dalhousie University philosophy professor Duncan MacIntoshTeresa Heffernan, Saint Mary’s University English professor and director of the Social Robot Futures project, will open the series with an introductory lecture on robot imaginaries past and future.

The schedule of talks and events is presented below. More information on each talk can be found at Automatons! From Ovid to AI.

All lectures start at 7 p.m. and take place in Alumni Hall, University of King’s College, Halifax, except for the March 21 and March 28 events.


January 10: Fritz Lang’s “Metropolis”Fritz Lang’s classic 1927 film, Metropolis, with live electroacoustic music, opens the Public Lecture Series. Venue: Alumni Hall

With musical accompaniment by the Upstream Music Association, the screening explores the intersection between electronics and improvisation, automation and real-time inspiration, featuring some of our finest cinematic improvisors: Amy Brandon on guitar and electronics, Steven Naylor on keyboard and electronics, Lukas Pearse on bass and electronics, and Brandon Auger on synthesizer.

January 17: Imagining Automatons

Teresa Heffernan of Saint Mary’s University and Director of the “Social Robots Futures” project, delivers the opening lecture on the past and future of robots. Venue: Alumni Hall

January 25: Ancient Automatons

Courtney Ann Roby, Cornell University, and author of The Written Machine between Alexandria and Rome (2016). Venue: Alumni Hall

February 14: Panel discussion on “Big Data and Autonomous Vehicles”

With Brian Flemming, Senior Fellow with the Van Horne Institute, Calgary, and Stan Matwin, Tier 1 Canada Research Chair, Dalhousie University. Venue: Alumni Hall

February 28: Imagined Puppet Life

Dawn Brandes, University of King’s College and Halifax Humanities. Venue: Alumni Hall

March 7: Asian Robots & Orientalism

Simon Kow, University of King’s College. Venue: Alumni Hall

March 21: War in the Age of Intelligent Machines

Renowned physicist and commentator Noel Sharkey debates Duncan MacIntosh, Dalhousie University, on the role of autonomous weapons. Venue: Scotiabank Auditorium, Saint Mary’s University

March 28: Frankenstein

A special performance and lecture marking the 200th anniversary of the Mary Shelley classic

With Despina Kakoudaki, American University of Washington, and author of Anatomy of a Robot: Literature, Cinema and the Cultural Work of Artificial People. Venue: Fountain School of Performing Arts, Dalhousie University

April 4: Living Artificially

With King’s alumna and University of Pennsylvania professor, Stephanie Dick. Author of Of Models and Machines

The 2018 Lecture Series is made possible with assistance from the University of King’s College (Contemporary Studies Program, Early Modern Studies Program and History of Science and Technology Program), Dalhousie University and Saint Mary’s University.

 

Public Debate: AI/Robots and Our Future

Posted: October 1, 2017 by keasp1 in AI, Ethics, Events, Robots

The aim of this public debate is to foster a broad and inclusive discussion which informs our understanding of the dynamics and consequences of the rise of AI and Robotics and how to govern its impact on humanity and our world.

Time/Date: 7:00 -8:30 pm, October 19, 2017 @ Acadia University, Wolfville, Nova Scotia. Room BAC 241.

Panel Members: Paul Abela, Acadia University; Teresa Heffernan, Saint Mary’s University; Stan Matwin, Dalhousie University; Danny Silver, Acadia University.

Moderator: Ian Wilks, Acadia University

Format:
A policy debate format will be used. Members of the Pro and Con teams will center their presentations on the following topics:
• AI/Robots and the impact on civil society (jobs and economic sustainability, governance)
• AI/Robots and our conception of what it is to be human (transhumanism, mortality, dominance/subservience/equality with the machine?)
• AI/Robots and our safety and security (social, political and military notions of responsibility and authority: where does the buck stop?)
• AI/Robots and human flourishing (privacy, a literate culture, an open and vibrant democracy)

For more information see: Panel Debate: AI/Robots and our Future

 

by Teresa Heffernan

Poster

We had a wonderful group of international and interdisciplinary speakers at Saint Mary’s University on March 31/April 1, 2017. They all took time out from their very busy schedules to come to Halifax to discuss robots and artificial intelligence at the Cyborg Futures Workshop. Academics from literary theory, digital culture, anthropology, sociology, environmental studies, robotics, and evolutionary biology, along with students and the public, convened for a lively discussion about technologies that are impacting us all. This workshop is part of a larger SSHRC-funded project–Where Science Meets Fiction: Social Robots and the Ethical Imagination–that is about shifting the conversation about robots and AI, which has been animated by fiction but dominated in the real world by the military and industry. Opening the discussion up to wider social and cultural contexts–from the impact of technology on human relations; to non-human animals, the environment and trash; to racism, imperialism and misogyny; to automation, labour and capitalism; to killer robots and the military; to the problematic collapse of science and fiction—this workshop considered both the infrastructure currently being laid that is forcing us down a troubling path and imaginative alternatives to it.  What follows cannot possibly do justice to the richness and complexity of the talks, so please click on the hyperlinks to listen to them.

1. Born in Fiction: Robots, Artificial People, and Animate Machines

Mr. Rastus Robot (Paleofuture)

The term robot was popularized in the 1920 play by the Czech writer Karel Čapek, R.U.R. (Rossum’s Universal Robots). The mass produced and servile humanoid machines in the play rise up against their masters and overthrow them. The play is about the anxieties of industrialization, technological change, and the mechanization and exploitation of human labour. Yet as the literary theorist Louis Chude-Sokei argues, the anxieties expressed in these fictional works about robots were framed by nineteenth-century discourses about race that linked blacks to machines. Questions about whether machines could think, whether they could feel, whether they had souls, whether they were worthy of rights, whether they would revolt–were all thoroughly steeped in the legacy of colonialism, racial coding and slavery. From Mr. Rastus Robot, “the most lifelike of mechanical men,” built by Westinghouse in the 30s to Norbert Wiener’s work in cybernetics–the industry also explicitly borrowed from the material histories of blacks, who were positioned as the prosthetic extensions of white masters. The history of technology and industrialization, Chude-Sokei, contends is haunted by colonialism and racism.

I-Robot

Despina Kakoudaki examines the ways in which robots, androids, cyborgs, and automata are constructed in relation to people in literature, film, and popular culture. Attentive to the gap between current technological innovations and the fantasies and desires that give rise to “unreal” artificial people, she suggests that even the most contemporary versions of them are informed by ancient tropes that perform the cultural work of elucidating and negotiating what it is to be human. Rather than understanding artificial people (whether real or fictional: Frankenstein, Electro, ASIMO, etc.) only in terms of an impending robot future, she argues that they have been the constant and long-standing companions of humans. In other words, her poetics of robots counters the prevalent readings of artificial people as continuous with developments in science and instead offers innovative readings of them as always having been part of an imaginative landscape. Her encyclopedic review of artificial people–from ancient stories to origin myths to Aristotle’s theories of animation to Frankenstein to Star Trek to Battlestar Galactica to Ex Machina—exposes the plot lines and tropes that persist in the depictions of artificial births, mechanical and enslaved bodies, and angst about authenticity. Yet whether the artificial person is imagined as other or as passing, as subjugated or rebellious, as having some level of consciousness or agency or not, the representations also speak to the particular cultural moment in which these fictions are conceived.

Kismet (MIT News 2007)

Lucy Suchman argues that we should be wary of the fiction of “autonomous” robotics and artificial intelligence that replicates the myth of the liberal human subject. So often robots are presented as spectacular and “life-like,” a technology that seems to operate miraculously and seamlessly on its own. Yet what gets erased from the picture in promotional videos and media clips of celebrity machines–from Deep Blue to Kog to Kismet–is the enormous infrastructure that enables these systems to function, which includes the many human “appendages” needed for them to operate. The oft-cited Turing Test is typically described as the point at which a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligence is deemed equivalent to or indistinguishable from that of a human. The evaluator in the test is aware that one of the two “invisible” partners in this conversation is a machine, and thus asks questions in order to determine the human from the machine. But what is so often left out of this description, Suchman reminds us, is the initial design of this test, which involved a man and a woman and an evaluator, with the man trying to confuse or trick the evaluator into thinking he is a woman and the woman supporting the evaluator by insisting she is the woman. The bodies are hidden from the evaluator in the course of this performance, but gendered assumptions (such as questions about hair length) all point to embodiment. When the machine takes the part of the man, however, the material body is abstracted and rendered invisible. As various narrations about AI and robotics encourage slippages between humans and machines and between the environment and the lab, Suchman argues we need to be attentive to this magic act that hides not only the enabling props but also the cultural and historical specificities of the technology.

Teresa Heffernan’s complete summary of the workshop can be found here. It includes:

1. Born in Fiction: Robots, Artificial People, and Animate Machines

2. Sex, War and Work: Machine-Human Relationships in the Twenty-First Century

3. The Singularity: Capitalism, Ancient Cultures, and Evolution

4. Some Concluding Remarks